Rose Bengal (RB) is a red colored stain derived as an analogue of fluorescein. This was originally prepared in 1882 by Ghnem and derives its name from rose (flower) and Bengal (region) and is printed as rose bengal or Rose Bengal in science. It is a 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro 2′,4′,5′,7′-tetraiodo derivative of fluorescein.
Salts of rose bengal include C20H4Cl4I4O5·2Na. This sodium salt is a dye, which has its own unique properties and uses It is commonly used in eye drops to stain damaged conjunctival and corneal cells and thereby identify damage to the eye. It is also widely used to detect damage to the ocular surface epithelium in ocular surface diseases such as dry eye and herpetic keratitis.
It is also used in laboratory settings, including the preparation of Foraminifera for microscopic analysis and suppression of bacterial growth in several microbiological media.
It is hydrophilic photosensitizer mostly used against gram-positive bacteria with great antimicrobial potential and high singlet oxygen quantum yield.
Rose Bengal helps in formation of many derivatives that possess significant medical benefits. One such derivative has been created for the treatment of Cancer. The derivative was formed by amidation of rose bengal, which turned off the fluorescent and photosensitive properties of rose bengal, leading to a usable compound, named in the study as RB2.
This direct cytotoxic effect of Rose Bon microorganisms and cancer cells has been observed, questioning its potential antitumor actions via intralesional injections. The clinical applications of rose bengal as injectable formulation under the name PV-10 in melanoma, breast cancer and skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis are being investigated in clinical trials. A drug based on rose Bengal is also formulated for the treatment of eczema and psoriasis, this drug is also currently under clinical trials.
Rose Bengal has been shown as a new Ray of Hope as it does not just prevent the growth and spread of ovarian cancer, but also causes apoptotic cell death of the cancer cells. This has been proven in vitro, hence further researches are going on to prove rose bengal as a possible option in the treatment of cancer.
Besides this, Rose Bengal is also beneficial in animal models of ischemic stroke wherein a bolus of the compound is injected into the venous system causing a stroke in the dependent brain tissue resulting from the exposure and illumination of laser light.
Rose Bengal has been used for 50 years to diagnose liver and eye cancer. It is also being researched as an agent in creating nano sutures. Wounds are painted on both sides with it and then illuminated with an intense light. This links the tiny collagen fibers together sealing the wound. Healing is faster and the seal reduces chances of infection.
Rose Bengal is used to suppress bacterial growth in several microbiological media, including Cooke’s rose bengal agar. It has been used as a protoplasm stain to discriminate between living and dead micro-organisms, particularly Foraminifera, since the 1950s when Bill Walton developed the technique.
|Molecular Weight||973.67 g/mol|
1,017.65 g/mol (sodium salt)